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Exotics Case - Bullfrog CT

Bullfrog CT Scan

💭 Look at the images from the CT scan of a bullfrog below. Can you tell:
A) What the arrows are pointing at?
B) What is the underlying disease process?
C) Bonus points for treatment for a treatment plan too!


Imaging findings:

The pink arrowheads are pointing at a faint cortical discontinuity in the right femoral proximal diaphysis with a sclerotic line extending through the medullary cavity in a transverse, craniocaudal direction. There is caudal angulation of the distal femoral diaphysis. Faint periosteal proliferation is noted around the sclerotic medullary cavity.


A right femoral pathologic folding fracture most consistent with metabolic bone disease.

Metabolic bone disease, also called nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, occurs in reptiles due to insufficient UVB light exposure, oral calcium, and suboptimal environmental temperatures. Bullfrogs rely on full spectrum light including both UVA and UVB light exposure to absorb dietary calcium. Appropriate ambient temperatures are needed for normal physiologic enzyme function. Pathologic femoral fractures (also called folding fractures) are a common presentation of metabolic bone disease in frog species.


Management includes correcting husbandry to include UVA + UVB light, appropriate environmental heat source, and dietary calcium.